Along with aviation and telecommunications, the gas supply chain has proved to be one of the paradigmatic factors in the great transformation in regulated industry law that has characterized recent decades. The liberalization in the gas market has taken two primary legal forms: (i) removal of entry barriers in competitive sectors; and (ii) regulation of infrastructure sectors through unbundling (economic separation of competitive and infrastructure sectors), and open access (requiring gas infrastructure owners/operators to allow competitors to access their facilities on commercial terms comparable to those that would apply in a competitive market). This book will focus on the latter legal form. This is the first book to analyze, in a comparative way, the detailed development of the unbundling and open access regimes across three continents. It is the author's contention that these two legal forms should be more widely implemented than they are at present. In each of five substantial chapters - on the United States, Europe, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan - the author first focuses on the proposed or current laws and industrial practices on service, account, functional, legal and ownership unbundling and independent system operator, and then on those of different open access regimes (mainly including regulated and negotiated third party access), insofar as they have been developed in each location. Using empirical evidence from Europe, the United States, and Japan that a well-formulated and comprehensive liberalization can bring about more advantages than disadvantages, he shows how well-designed unbundling and open access regimes may accomplish the following: * inject much-needed competition into gas exploration, exploitation, import, production, and retailing; * reform and re-regulate non-competitive sectors such as transportation, distribution, and storage; * balance potential conflicts between energy security and competition; and * support interests such as environmental protection, energy rights, safety, and consumer protection. The author attends throughout to the contrasting market situations in countries that rely on importing natural gas by liquefied natural gas tankers (LNG countries), and countries with their natural gas mainly coming from production fields via direct pipelines (PNG countries). Identifying the key legal issues arising from the development of the various unbundling and open access regimes discussed, the book goes on to provide a detailed general legislative framework for gas liberalization that applies especially to LNG countries. The author finds, perhaps surprisingly, that both LNG countries and PNG countries can in fact learn from each other. This book will be a key reference for anyone interested in the legal issues of gas liberalization, and will also provide the international energy community with keen insight into the unbundling and open access regimes in the United States, Europe, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. Policymakers around the world will discover an excellent framework for launching or improving a gas liberalization scheme.
The general scope of the book is the patentability and morality of human embryonic stem cell research in US, EU and China. The book observes fraudsters operate unsafe human embryonic stem cell therapies and officialdom turns a blind eye to the immoral human embryonic stem cell research in China. The book highlights that both patent control and federal funding control are inefficient and ineffective way to monitoring human embryonic stem cell research. Â The book finally proposed an approach for china to regulating human embryonic stem cell research-regulating research itself at the reconciled international regime.Â
This book presents 9 theory-based and practice-oriented methods for assessing and stimulating a multi-voiced dialogical self in the context of groups, teams, cultures, and organizations. All of these methods are based on Dialogical Self Theory. The book deals with the practical implications of this theory as applied in the areas of coaching, training, and counselling. A number of chapters focus on the process of positioning and dialogue on the level of the self, while other chapters combine self-processes with group work, and still others find their applications in leadership development and team-work in organizations. For each of the nine methods, the chapters present theory, method, case-study and discussions and make clear what kind of problems can be tackled using the method discussed.
Specifically, the book discusses the following methods: A Negotiational Self Method for assessing and solving inner conflicts; aSelf-Confrontation Method used to assess and stimulate personal meaning construction in career counselling; aMethod of Expressive Writing in the context of career development; a Composition Method for studying the content and organization of personal positions via verbal and non-verbal procedures; aDialogical Leadership Method that investigates and stimulates dialogical relationships between personal positions in the self of leaders in organizations; aPersonal Position Repertoire Method that combines the assessment of personal positions with focus group discussions; a Team Confrontation Method for investigating collective and deviant positions or voices in organizational teams; a Method for Revising Organizational Stories with a focus on their emotional significance: and a Technique for Assessing and Stimulating Innovative Dialogue between Cultural Positions in global nomads.
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