Bigby lives in the afterlife as a giant oak tree. In life, he was an overweight street musician raised by his voodoo queen grandmother and an uncle that took him in after losinig his mother. In the streets of N'Orleans, Bigby learns what it means to have friends and connections, for when his uncle and grandmother mysteriously disappear, Bigby finds he is being looked after by the voodoo community. He is showered with gifts of food, food and more food as he grows up alone in N'Orleans. Becoming overweight through adolescence, Bigby trades up his trumpet playing for the trombone, just to keep the music alive within. After Hurricane Katrina takes Bigby's life, he is left oblivious to the community and following that his voodoo grandmother and Uncle created and is left with the memories of a happy life. Ignorance is more than bliss for Bigby in the afterlife.
5. 1. 1 Biological Rhythms and Clocks From an evolutionary perspective, the adaptation of an organism's behavior to its environment has depended on one of life's fundamental traits: biological rhythm generation. In virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans, biological clocks adapt cyclic physiology to geophysical time with time-keeping properties in the circadian (24 h), ultradian (24 h) domains (Edmunds, 1988; Lloyd, 1998; Lloyd et al. , 2001; Lloyd and Murray, 2006; Lloyd, 2007; Pittendrigh, 1993; Sweeney and Hastings, 1960) By definition, all rhythms exhibit regular periodicities since they constitute a mechanism of timing. Timing exerted by oscillatory mechanisms are found throughout the biological world and their periods span a wide range from milliseconds, as in the action potential of n- rons and the myocytes, to the slow evolutionary changes that require thousands of generations. In this context, to understand the synchronization of a population of coupled oscillators is an important problem for the dynamics of physiology in living systems (Aon et al. , 2007a, b; Kuramoto, 1984; Strogatz, 2003; Winfree, 1967). Circadian rhythms, the most intensively studied, are devoted to measuring daily 24 h cycles. A variety of physiological processes in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms display circadian rhythmicity which is characterized by the following major properties (Anderson et al. , 1985; Edmunds, 1988): (i) stable, autonomous (self-sustaining) oscillations having a free-running period under constant envir- mental conditions of ca.
This book is about musical rhythm. More precisely, it is concerned with computer programs that automatically extract rhythmic descriptions from musical audio signals. New algorithms are presented for tempo induction, tatum estimation, time signature determination, swing estimation, swing transformations and classification of ballroom dance music styles. These algorithms directly process digitized recordings of acoustic musical signals. The backbones of these algorithms are rhythm periodicity functions: functions measuring the salience of a rhythmic pulse as a function of the period (or frequency) of the pulse, calculated from selected instantaneous physical attributes (henceforth features) emphasizing rhythmic aspects of sound. This book substantially contributes to the field of computational rhythm description by proposing an unifying functional framework; by reviewing the architecture of many existing systems with respect to individual blocks of this framework; by reporting on the first public evaluation of tempo induction algorithms; and by identifying promising research directions.
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